Posted by: ADMIN | April 9, 2011
Teachings from Ancient Vietnamese Zen Masters
Vietnamese Zen Masters
Translated and Commented by Nguyen Giac
This book is dedicated to:
– My three teachers — The Zen Master Thich Tich Chieu, and the late Dharma Masters Thich Thien Tam and Thich Tai Quang;
– All my parents in this life and other lives;
-A very special layperson who is urgently needing help from Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva; and all sentient beings.
I am grateful to a lot of Zen monks and laypersons who translated the verses composed by ancient Vietnamese Zen Masters into the modern Vietnamese language, and made reference easy for later generations. Specifically, I am indebted to the Zen Masters Thich Thanh Tu, Tri Sieu Le Manh That and to layperson Tran Dinh Son, whose works I relied on while working on this book.
(Extracted from a book in progress.
Please feel free to use for reference purposes.
All suggestions are welcome.
Email: email@example.com — California, 2006)
There are three ways of sitting in meditation.
First, sit and keep your mind on breathing;
Second, sit and chant the sutras;
And third, sit and happily listen to the chanting of sutras.
Sitting has three levels.
First, sit in union;
Second, sit in peacefulness;
And third, sit without fetters.
What does it mean to sit in union?
That means your mind becomes one with your body.
What does it mean to sit in peacefulness?
That means your mind has no thought.
What does it mean to sit without fetters?
When all fetters are destroyed – that means to sit without fetters.
KHUONG TANG HOI (? – 280)
(COMMENT: When mindful of your breathing, you are also mindful of your mind. Later, you will see your mind becoming one with your breath. When mindful of your bodily movement, you are also mindful of your mind. Later, you will see your mind becoming one with your body. Looking at your mind, you see thoughts coming and going, just like waves rising and falling. When you see no thoughts occurring, your mind is peaceful just like a still lake.)
Monks! Offering your best efforts to Buddha,
all learners only need to quit bad conduct.
Be mindful while you chant,
understand what you believe,
practice the teachings you hear,
and live in a quiet place near Dharma friends.
Speak peacefully, timely; have no fears.
Understand the meaning of Dharma, and get enlightenment;
quit the ignorance, and constantly be mindful;
be calm, and live with your mind unmoved.
See all things as impermanent, non-self, uncreated, unconditioned.
Thus learners are those who have no discrimination.
TINH LUC (1112 – 1175)
(COMMENT: See for yourself all things are impermanent, and non-self. Looking at the person you are now, you see it is different to millions of persons you were yesterday, and you see you are just a stream running swiftly, manifesting endlessly in different forms as waves rising and falling, as bubbles forming and popping. The waves and bubbles continuously appear large or small, high or low, hot or cold, clean or unclean; but at all times, water has no form, being unmoved, staying unconditioned. Just live like water, and you will catch a glimpse of Nirvana – the state of uncreated, unconditioned peace. After that insight, you easily act, speak, and think mindfully, without discrimination. Just advance on the way to liberation; don’t cling to this suffering world again, in this life or after.)
Breathing in, you feel you are breathing in;
breathing out, you feel you are breathing out.
Breathing in, you know you are breathing in;
breathing out, you know you are breathing out.
While you breathe, you feel; then, you know.
Feeling – that means you feel the breath long or short.
Knowing – that means you are aware of the breath rising and falling, rough or smooth, slow or fast.
KHUONG TANG HOI
(COMMENT: Breathing meditation helps calm the mind easily; it is also a part of mindfulness meditation. There are many ways in breathing meditation. Some teachers prefer to count or follow the breaths. You should also try this way: With eyes half open, don’t count, don’t follow, just feel the breaths; Be alert, and feel the breathing. Just be like a baby, and feel the breathing. A baby can not think, can not count, can not put her mind on the breaths, but she lives mostly with a sense of feeling and she will cry when the room is too hot, or when she is hungry. Just feel the breaths, don’t count or follow it. Remember that all methods of breathing meditation are helpful, and you can try many different ones. The Buddha said that breathing meditation cured many illness too.)
Learning the way of Buddha, you must have zeal;
to become a Buddha, you need wisdom.
Shooting an arrow to a target more than a hundred steps away, you must be strong;
to hit the mark, you need more than strength.
BAO GIAM (?-1173)
(COMMENT: Wisdom, insight, right view… Just follow the Buddha’s teachings, meditate for many years, and you will understand the Way.)
Taming the mind
Outwardly, stop all involvement; inwardly, stop all fabrication.
Be alert — have a mind unmoved by the form you see, by the sound you hear, by the odor you smell, by the flavor you taste.
Constantly, watch the ox moving, listen to its hoofbeats.
Constantly, in any movement, never keep your eyes away from the ox.
Constantly, keep your mind on the ox while lying, sitting, standing and walking.
Constantly, keep watching inwardly.
It’s wrong to let it wander wildly.
QUANG TRI (circa 18th century)
(COMMENT: Meditation is like taming an ox. How can you have a mind unmoved while living in this world? Just be like the water, not like waves or bubbles; the water is unmoved, uncreated, unconditioned while the waves rise and fall, the bubbles form and pop endlessly. Look at your mind – an endless stream of thoughts. Keep watching the mind, and be like water, which equally flows all things thrown into that stream.)
Watch yourself everyday, constantly.
Watch yourself, be mindful, be alert.
In this dream world, don’t search for Dharma counselor;
Watch yourself, and see the Buddha’s face on your face.
HUONG HAI (1628 – 1715)
(COMMENT: Watch yourself, and see you are impermanent, non-self. Watch yourself, and see whether you are living in a dream. You are changing swiftly, endlessly. Yesterday, you had millions of different bodies, millions of different feelings, millions of different thoughts – just like a stream flowing swiftly. Look back and see all those bodies, feelings, and thoughts just like dreams, like echoes, like mirages. Then look at the day before yesterday. Do you feel just like millions of lives away? Are those dreams? Think nothing, just observe. Just be alert, feel the breath, observe the body breathing. And feel the life and death flowing swiftly, endlessly in your whole body.)
When spring goes, all flowers die.
When spring comes, all flowers smile.
Before the eyes, all things flow endlessly.
Over the head, old age comes already.
Don’t say that with the spring gone, all flowers fall.
Last night, in the front yard, a branch of mai flower.
MAN GIAC (1052 – 1096)
(COMMENT: Mai is a kind of flower that blossoms in springtime in Vietnam. Notice the contrast between the first and last line; also, the last line of the poem is a fragment sentence, without a verb, showing the state of unborn, unmoving, undying. While the stream manifests as endless waves rising and falling, the nature of water stays unmoved, uncreated. Now look at your mind, and see thoughts coming and going, arising and vanishing. The mind is just like a mirror that shows you the images of all things reflected. All images come and go, but the reflectivity is still there, unmoving, undying. Now, listen to the sound of two hands clapping, then listen to the sound of one hand clapping. Do you hear the soundless? The sound comes and goes, but the nature of hearing ability is still there even in your sleep, unchanging, unmoving, undying.)
Practitioners need dharma friends,
who help you distinguish clearly between the clean and the unclean.
First, colleagues living at will in forests and mountains
can help you wipe out the mind of anger.
Second, colleagues keeping precepts seriously
can help you fade away the five desires.
Third, colleagues with profound wisdom
can help you escape from the shore of delusion.
Fourth, colleagues with vast knowledge
can help you solve the hard and doubtful issues.
Fifth, colleagues of peace and serenity
can help you easily advance.
Sixth, colleagues of patience and modesty
can help you remove arrogance.
Seventh, colleagues of sincerity and frankness
can help you avoid mistakes.
Eighth, colleagues of vigor and zeal
can help you attain the fruits of the Way.
Ninth, colleagues unattached to possessions, eager to donate
can help you destroy miserliness.
Tenth, colleagues merciful and caring for all beings
can help you liberate from the clinging to self and others.
(COMMENT: Buddha, parents, teachers, dharma friends, books… We need so much help on the way to liberation, because we have to learn a lot, keep precepts strictly, find an environment adequate for learning and meditation. But only you can watch your mind, and only you can wipe out the three poisons – desire, hatred and ignorance — binding you in the cycle of rebirth.)
Living in the world,
happy with the Way,
you should let all things take their course.
When hungry, just eat; when tired, just sleep.
The treasure is in your house; don’t search any more.
Face the scenes,
and have no thoughts;
then you don’t need to ask for Zen.
TRAN NHAN TONG (1258-1308)
(COMMENT: Live with the water, not with the waves rising and falling; live with the nature of mirror to reflect, not with the images appearing and disappearing; and live with the essence of the mind, not with the thoughts arising and vanishing. When you see the essence of the mind, then you catch a glimpse of Nirvana – the state of unborn, uncreated, unconditioned peace. After that moment, you know how to live with the mind unmoved while walking, standing, lying and sitting. How can you see the essence of the mind? Please, remember: You are never away from it, just like the water holds all the waves and is never away from the waves, just like the emptiness of the mirror hold all the images and is never away from the images. The essence of the mind is non-self, so it manifest as a great magician: your mind has no form, so it takes all forms you see as its forms; your mind has no color, so it takes all colors you see as its colors… Now look out the window. When you see a bird, your mind now has the form of a bird; and when the bird flies, your mind flies too. Your mind is all things you see, all things you hear, all things you feel; the observer is all things observed. The Sixth Patriarch Hue Nang* told two monks arguing over the banner flying that that was not the banner moving, and also not the wind moving, but just their minds moving.)
* Chinese: Hui Neng.
Form is emptiness, and emptiness is form.
Emptiness is form, and form is emptiness.
Don’t cling to any form or emptiness —
That’s the true meditation.
Y LAN (11th century)
(COMMENT: Just look at your body, your feelings, your thoughts; they were changing swiftly since the day you were born. So you have had millions of bodies, millions of feelings, millions of thoughts — which one is your true body, true feeling, true thought? Your body, your feelings, your thoughts can manifest as millions of forms, because forms are indeed emptiness just like illusions appearing in the mirror. If you cling to anything as form or emptiness, you are chasing the illusions.)
The present is not the past;
the past is not the present.
That means past thoughts vanished, and the present thought is not the previous thought.
That means every act in past lives and now has its own merit.
That means the good deed now is not the bad act done before.
That means the breath now is not the breath earlier,
and the breath felt previously was not the breath sensed presently.
KHUONG TANG HOI
(COMMENT: Live with the present. Every act has its own merit, so you should not worry about the past. Just sit with eyes half open, feel your breath now, feel your body breathing now, feel your thought now arising and vanishing. Can you see this interval: while the previous thought vanished and the next thought doesn’t arise yet? Try to gently stare that interval for all times in a day, or in two days, even when you are lying, sitting, standing and walking. Later, you can use this stare to cut off all wandering thoughts.)
Not Two Things
All Buddhist gates are from your essence,
and the essence of all things are from your mind.
Your mind and all things are one, not two things.
The fetters of samsara are all void.
Blessedness and sinfulness, right and wrong – all are illusions.
CUU CHI (circa 11th century)
(COMMENT: Nonduality. Not two things. Don’t think, don’t reason. Feel it, live it. Try to feel it even just half an hour, then you will believe in Zen.
First, with eyes half open, be quiet, say nothing in your mind; feel the breath in and out, gently feel every breath. Later, see that your whole body is breathing – just gently watch your whole body feel the breath, every breath. Later, see that your whole body and mind become one with the breath. Then let your whole body gently feel the world around. Because you are non-self, you feel that you become one with the wind around, with the sounds from the beach, with the trees along the street, with the birds flying, and with all things you see, your hear. In your mirror mind, all things appear equally, all things are illusions; only the reflecting mind is shining.)
In the sky, the swallow flies;
underwater its image shines.
The swallow has no intention to leave any trace;
the water, no purpose to keep any image.
HUONG HAI (1628 – 1715)
(COMMENT: When King Le Du Tong asked for a summary of Buddhist teachings, Zen master Huong Hai said this four-line poem. Watch the world, and see all things reflected in your mind. Follow the Buddha’s words, “Nothing should be clung to.” Also don’t cling to the happiness you are feeling now, even don’t cling to this peaceful meditation you might get addicted to, even don’t cling to any feel-good method or whatsoever. Don’t cling to anything in this suffering world. Even the blissfulness you feel now in meditation will bind you in this suffering realm, if you cling to it; mostly, that blissfulness is not the Nirvana yet.)
The Mind of Emptiness
Like a wall shaking, the body is frail.
So sad for mankind, life is too short.
If you attain the mind of emptiness and formlessness,
you will be free from the world of coming and going.
VIEN CHIEU (999-1090)
(COMMENT: You can feel the frailness of your body now, even when you are healthy and strong. Try this: breathe in and out, gently and naturally; feel the breathing in and out, feel your whole body breathing; feel your whole body becoming one with the breath. Then you will see that your breath is so fragile, and your body is so vulnerable.
The more you experience the bliss from meditation, the more you feel sorrowful for the plight of humankind.
Recalling the Buddha’s words saying that we have born and died countless times, you will feel grateful to countless parents, and will see all people around as your dear parents in past lives. Then you will feel your whole body deeply resonate with the Zen vow to save all sentient beings. How can we save others if we are not free yet? Zen master Vien Chieu said that leaners must attain the mind of emptiness and formlessness. Indeed, you will see that the mind essence is empty and formless. So all things in the world appear and disappear in the mind just like the clouds formed and dissolved in the sky, just like the images emerged and vanished in a mirror.
So all the forms you see, all the sounds you hear, all the odors you smell, all the flavors you taste, all the senses you feel, all the thoughts you have are changing swiftly. So nothing has a self. So all things come and go, governed by the principle of dependent arising. Realizing the mind essence will free you from the world of coming and going.)
Having the Buddha Seed within,
hearing the profound teachings,
you should be eager to practice.
After throwing all desires
far a thousand miles away,
then day after day
you will enter more deeply the noble truth of liberation.
TRI (circa 10th or 11th century)
(COMMENT: Buddha Seed is another name for Buddha Nature. If you can throw all desires, then you won’t cling to anything more. That also means when you throw away all existence and emptiness, all things binding you to this samsara world will fall apart. But it takes time. Even after you suddenly realize the Buddha Nature in your mind, you still have to practice continuously, day after day. Then you should read a lot of Buddhist scriptures from all traditions – Theravada, Mahayana and Tibetan – and would see that many of these teachings already are parts of your everyday meditation.)
Hidden in jewel, the melody sounds wonderful.
See there, fully before your eyes, the heart of Zen
Those countless scenes are all Bodhi scenes.
Thinking of Bodhi, you will be far away ten thousand miles.
TRI HUYEN (circa 12th century)
(COMMENT: The jewel stands for the Buddha Nature. Is the scene before your eyes the Pure Land? The Buddha Land is here, in front of us? Buddha said that you are what you think, that your mind makes this world. Just think this: you came to this world by the influence of karma, and you have the merit to be born as a human; if now you have enough the merit as a heavenly being, then you would sometimes see a heavenly scene before your eyes, and if your karma as a human is done, then you would die instantly to be reborn in a heavenly realm. Now, just think another way: countless scenes before your eyes are also your mind. You can feel that, realize that, and experience that.)
Existence and Emptiness
Existence – there you see all things existing.
Emptiness – there you see all things empty.
Existence and emptiness are just like the moon underwater.
Don’t cling to existence nor emptiness.
DAO HANH (? – 1115)
(COMMENT: How can we say this mountain or that river is emptiness? Just think this: They are impermanent, so they are somehow both existence and emptiness, and so there are no words adequate to describe them. You can experience that in another way: gently listen, deeply listen, don’t try to listen to a specific sound, just listen with your mind vacant. You will feel that all the sounds come and go just like echoes, just like illusions, just like a dream last night. And if you cling to existence or emptiness, you are shackled to this world.)
True nature, eternally, is the nature of emptiness.
There is neither birth nor death.
The body is born and died,
but the nature of all things is never gone.
THUAN CHAN (? – 1101)
(COMMENT: Look at a mirror. Images come and go, but the reflecting nature is always inaction, unmoved, uncreated, undying. Look at your mind. Thoughts come and go, but the mind nature is always inaction, unmoved, uncreated, undying. We all are actors in a big theater; we have played millions of different roles since endless time, born and died in millions of plays, and now it’s time to follow the Buddha’s teaching to attain Nirvana — the state of unborn and undying peace.)
Crossing the Ocean
All things, originally, are just like nothingness.
There is neither existence nor emptiness.
Those who know that nature
will recognize that sentient beings and Buddha are equal.
The moon of Lankavatara is quiet;
the vessel of Prajnaparamita, void.
Realize the emptiness [of all things],
and use this emptiness insight to apprehend the existence.
Then you know how to live in the right contemplation, naturally at all times.
HUE SINH (? – 1063)
(COMMENT: Lankavatara and Prajnaparamita are two Mahayana scriptures. Both are studied in most Zen monasterries. The right contemplation mentioned above is a part of the Noble Eightfold Path.)
The true nature is empty, nowhere to grasp.
With an empty mind, you will see the self-nature easily.
In the mountain burning, the jewel’s color is shining bright.
In the kiln firing, the lotus blossoms beautifully.
NGO AN (1019 – 1088)
(COMMENT: The mountain burning and the kiln firing symbolize this suffering world. The jewel and the lotus symbolize the Buddha Nature, the Buddha within yourself, and the Nirvana you are never away.)
Eternally dwelling in worlds,
unborn and undying – that is called Buddha.
Understanding the mind teachings of Buddha,
attaining enlightenment along with interpreting scriptures – those are called Patriarchs.
Buddha and Patriarchs are just one.
Only the bookworm wrongly says they have high and low levels.
Moreover, Buddha is awareness.
Quiet since infinite time, dwelling eternally — this awareness is.
And all sentient beings have it.
Because their passion defilements cover this awareness,
all sentient beings follow the karma
and fall into the cycle of rebirth – then all the realms of samsara exist.
THONG BIEN (? – 1134)
(COMMENT: After meditating for a while, you should read many Buddhist scriptures, go to many temples, talk to many different sectarian teachers, and find a tradition you feel comfortable most. Then you should formally take refuge in the Three Precious Ones — Buddha, Dharma, Sangha – and receive the precepts to make sure that we will never fall into lower realms, and will always move forward on the way to liberation.)
The Way of Patriarchs
Clinging to existence and emptiness only wastes your efforts.
Buddhist learners should ask for the best – the Way of Patriarchs.
It’s really hard if you search for the mind outwardly;
Planting a cinnamon tree can not make it become a cypress tree.
The tip of a hair contains the whole universe;
A grain of rice, the sun and moon.
When the great usefulness unveils, just hold at hands firmly.
Who would distinguish anymore
between the holy and the unenlightened,
between the west and the east?
KHANH HY (1066 – 1142)
(COMMENT: How can the tip of a hair contain the whole universe? How can a grain of rice contain the sun and the moon? Just close your eyes and then open again. How can the whole sky fit into your eyes? Did you dream last night? How can all the universe fit into your dream, an illusion playing in your mind? Do you recall the story of “not the flag moving, not the wind moving, just the mind moving”? How can all things fit into your mind? And how can your mind carry all the huge boulders? Too heavy. But feel it. Look at it. Buddha said that you are what you think, that your mind makes this world. Look at the boulders, and see you are the boulders you see. In this realization, all things are equal.)
I have a weird thing –
not blue, not yellow, not black, not red, not white.
Both monks and laypersons who like birth and dislike death are the outlawed.
They don’t know that birth and death
though are different trails, but just only gain and loss.
If you say birth and death are different ways,
you cheat both Sakyamuni and Maitreya.
If you know birth and death, death and birth,
then you understand where I dwell.
You all, Zen practitioners and future learners,
should not accept patterns and guidelines.
GIOI KHONG (circa 12th century)
(COMMENT: All patterns and guidelines are the finger pointing, not the moon you want to see. If you don’t have the guidelines, you don’t know how to practice Zen. But when you cling to it as truth, you never understand the mind teachings. This is the gateless gate, and also the pathless path.)
Earth, water, fire, wind, consciousness – those are originally emptiness.
The clouds form and dissolve, but the Bodhi sun shines endlessly.
This worldly body and the sublime nature can be said neither forming nor dissolving.
If you need to distinguish, just see the flower in the firing kiln.
DAO HUE (? – 1172)
(COMMENT: All things are made from the five elements: Earth, water, fire, wind, consciousness. They are all emptiness originally. They are empty, so they can change and transform.)
The Moon Shining
You don’t need much time for practice
to attain the complete enlightenment.
Gaining wisdom is the best way; anything else, the exhausted effort.
Having the jewel, the profound truth, is just like seeing the sun in the sky.
The enlighted one is just like the moon shining above,
lightening all the realms endlessly.
If you need to know, just need to distinguish this:
Heavy fog blankets the high mountain in the afternoon.
BAO GIAM (? – 1173)
(COMMENT: You then should take the four Zen vows. In Zen monasteries, practitioners recite the four Zen vows to save all sentient beings, to remove all the fetters, to master all the dharma teachings, and to attain the unsurpassed Buddahood. There are many good translations of the Zen vows, and you should find the one you can recite comfortably. The vows will lead you on the way to liberation.)
This illusory body was originally born from emptiness and stillness,
just like images appearing in a mirror.
Realizing that all forms are all empty,
instantly in this illusory body you realize the true form.
BON TICH (1100 – 1176)
(COMMENT: Empty. True form. Just look around. Are all things around you emptiness? And how can we realize the true form in this illusory body? How can we feel that, experience that, and live that? Just meditate.)
Profound originally, the emptiness manifests itself visibly.
A peaceful wind blows, and creates all the universe.
Wish all human beings know the bliss of inaction,
because attaining the inaction is coming home.
CHAN KHONG (1045 – 1100)
(COMMENT: Inaction is another name of Nirvana.)
Like an Echo
Live yourself a simple life.
Only the morality is your duty.
If you want to say the good words, just insistingly tell others one saying:
When you see there is no self and others, the dust stops blowing;
Day and night, up and down, there is no form to settle;
Like a reflection, like an echo, there is no trace to point out.
(COMMENT: All things are playing in your mind. But when you look around and you can not see the mind. You can not say there is no mind, because the consciousness arises and vanishes. You can not say there is something called mind, because there is no trace of it. Thoughts come and go just like illusions. Now try this: Keep silent for a day, or even one hour, and feel the environment around. You would feel that all the sounds you hear are not the normal sounds anymore; you feel that they are all echoes in your mind.)
Birth, aging, illness, death
are normal since infinite time.
While you want liberation,
trying to untie only makes it tighter,
searching for Buddha deludes yourself more,
and asking for meditation also misleads you.
Don’t pursue Buddha and Zen.
Tighten your lips – be wordless.
DIEU NHAN (1041 – 1113)
(COMMENT: Dieu Nhan was a Zen nun. She had another way to express the truth. She made this poem before her death, saying that the truth should be said with no words. Don’t cling to whatsoever, even to the meditation.)
After seeing the mind essence, you have to keep the precepts purely. How is “keeping the precepts purely”? That means in twelve hours, stop all involvement outwardly, and still your mind inwardly.
Because the mind is still, you are peaceful while seeing a scene. Your eyes don’t slip outward when consciousness arises by the seen, and your consciousness doesn’t slip inward by the scene you see. The outward and the inward don’t interfere each other, so we call blockade. We say blockade, but it doesn’t mean “to block.” The senses of ears, nose, tongue, body and mind are just like that.
That is called the Mahayana precepts, the unsurpassed precepts, also the unequalled precepts. All the monks, young or old, must keep the precepts purely like that.
Keeping the precepts firmly, then you practice Zen. The key of Zen is that you must drop all body and mind. First, while practicing the samatha meditation, you should often ask yourself some questions. Where did this body come from? Where did this mind come from? While the mind doesn’t really exist, where did the body come from?
While body and mind are emptiness, where did all things come from? All things don’t really exist, because while there was no existence [at the beginning], where did existence come from? That existence was nonexistence, so there is no existence. A thing is not really a thing, then where does each thing depend on? If there is no where to depend on, then a thing is not a thing. This thing is not real, but also not unreal.
When you realize the true nature, that is when you enter meditation. Practitioner should not become attached to meditating; meditation without a trace of meditation is called the unsurpassed meditation.
Moreover, practicing the thoai dau (Chinese: huatou) should be unbroken, constantly ceaseless without any pause, also without any overturned thought, without any turmoil and without any dull feeling. Your mind must be transparent just like a diamond rolling on a tray, and luminous just like a mirror on a frame…
PHAP LOA (1284 – 1330)
(COMMENT: Don’t be scared by the confusing questions. Zen Master Phap Loa wanted to generate the great doubt in your thinking. The great doubt may help you to attain great enlightenment. Some koans will push you into a great doubt, some won’t. A short koan is usually called thoai dau. You can practice thoai dau like this: Just say the name of a Buddha, and ask yourself that who just said that name, look in your mind to see that who just said that name, and you would fall into a great doubt. No thoughts can exist in the great doubt. Just only the great doubt exists while you are lying, sitting, standing and walking. This will help you to see the nature of the mind.)